Traducción: de espanol

Alternate forms

  • 1 asignar un encabezamiento

    (v.) = assign + heading, establish + heading, label with + a heading
    Ex. A particular subject heading may be assigned to several books which discuss the same subject.
    Ex. In certain cases the cataloguing agency responsible for the authority entry may establish one or more alternate forms of the uniform heading which are recognized as having parallel or equal status.
    Ex. Each file will be labelled with a heading which corresponds with the material to be organised.
    * * *
    (v.) = assign + heading, establish + heading, label with + a heading

    Ex: A particular subject heading may be assigned to several books which discuss the same subject.

    Ex: In certain cases the cataloguing agency responsible for the authority entry may establish one or more alternate forms of the uniform heading which are recognized as having parallel or equal status.
    Ex: Each file will be labelled with a heading which corresponds with the material to be organised.

    Spanish-English dictionary > asignar un encabezamiento

  • 2 adobe

    (Sp. model spelled same [aðóβe] < Arabic at-tub 'the brick')
        DARE: 1759.
       1) Sundried brick made of clay, straw, and water.
       2) A structure, usually a house, made from the same material.
       3) Clay suitable for fashioning such bricks.
       The first definition is attested to in the DRAE; Santamaría confirms the usage of the second in the Southwest, providing the example "She lived in her old adobe," also noting that the lot or grounds on which such a structure was to be built could be referred to as "an adobe sole." ( Sole, according to the OED, is an obsolete term meaning "the foundation of a building; the site of a city, etc.") Spanish architecture was also greatly influenced by the Moors who introduced styles and materials now intimately associated with the Southwest.
       4) As an adjective, several English sources note that the term denotes Mexican origin and usually connotes inferiority. For instance, the Mexican dollar or silver peso was called a "dobie dollar," or "dobie," for short. Cowboys were familiar with adobe as building material on the ranches and haciendas where they worked. Cowboy English is the source of the expression dobe wall listed below, according to Bentley, Adams, and Watts.
       5) Hendrickson's contention that adobe is the model for doughboy (military personnel) is not supported by any of the sources consulted. See the OED for possible etymologies. Doughboy is attested, however, by the OED as slang for (1). Common compounds: adobe brick, adobe block, adobe house.
        Alternate forms: adabe, adaube, adaubi, adobey, adobi, adobie, adoby, 'dobe, 'dobie, dob, doba, dobbey, dobby, dobie, doby, dogie, doughboy.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > adobe

  • 3 aguardiente

    (Sp. model spelled same [agwarðjénte] compound, agglutinated Spanish form < Latin aqua 'water' and arder < Latin ardere 'to burn, be on fire' plus the Spanish suffix - iente equivalent to the English - ing, in this case, literally burning water; hence, fire, or fiery, water)
        DARE: 1818. According to the OED, it originally referred to "a coarse kind of brandy made in Spain and Portugal" and was extended to native whiskey in the Southwest. Watts notes the continued evolution of the term: it also came to refer to spirits distilled from Mexican red wine or rum. As the Spanish sources note, it can refer to any distilled drink where the resultant alcohol is diluted with water. Hence it is a generic term translatable as booze (Blevins), strong (alcoholic) drink, or liquor (Hendrickson). It is likely that this generic meaning was the one used by cowboys and American Indians alike.
        Alternate forms: agua ardiente, aguadiente, aguadinte, aguardent, aquadiente, aquadinte, aquardiente, aquedent, aquediente, argadent, awerdente, awerdenty.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > aguardiente

  • 4 alcalde

    (Sp. model spelled same [alkájde] < Arabic al-quadl 'the judge')
        DARE: 1821 (Texas). Hoy notes that in colonial times this term referred to a town leader who wore several hats. He could act as judge in both civil and some minor criminal matters. He was also the presiding authority in the alcaldía, holding a higher position than the regidores, city legislators who collected tribute along with the alcalde. In Texas, during the 1830s, the term broadened significantly in meaning. Watts indicates that what it signified was roughly equivalent to a combination of mayor, chief of police and judge in the Southwest, particularly among the Mexican poblados. Clark adds that the term was also used to refer to a "somewhat important or self-important local person." Bentley notes that the term is sometimes confused with Spanish alcaide, meaning "the officer charged with the defense of a fort or castle." According to the DRAE, the term can refer to the president of a town council (or mayor) or to a municipal judge.
        Alternate forms: alcade, alcaide.
       Although Hollywood has greatly exaggerated the type and frequency of criminal activities that cowboys engaged in, no doubt a few renegades appeared before an alcalde to answer to the demands of justice.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > alcalde

  • 5 alfilaria

    ( alfilería [alfilería] < alfilerillo < alfiler < Arabic al-hhilel 'pin,' plus the diminutive suffix -illo; hence, 'small pin')
        OED: 1868. Acommon forage in the Southwest, also known as pin grass ( Erodium cicu-tarium). According to Cobos, alfilería (also alfilerillo) is used in New Mexican and Southern Colorado Spanish to denote a plant of the Cranesbill family called pinclover. He indicates that the term derives from alfilerillo, which the DRAE defines as an herbaceous plant used as forage in Argentina and Chile. It is likely that the Argentine and Chilean varieties are unrelated to the southwestern alfilaria or alfile-ria, but share the common characteristic of a pinlike shape. No doubt the cowboy distinguished among the various types of forage that cattle would eat, since there was always the danger that they might ingest locoweed or some other poisonous plant.
        Alternate forms: alfilena, alfileria, alfilerilla, filaree, fileree.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > alfilaria

  • 6 alforja(s)

    (Sp. model spelled same [alfórxa] < Arabic al-jurya 'the saddlebags')
       Bentley: 1847. A pair of bags or boxes made of rawhide, canvas, or wood suspended from a packsaddle; saddlebags. Spanish sources also register this meaning, among others. Another Arabic term introduced into Spanish in the Iberian Peninsula and brought to the New World by Spanish horsemen. Mexican vaqueros subsequently introduced alforja(s) to the ranchers, riders, and ropers in the Southwest. The range of spellings and pronunciations attests to the widespread usage of the term.
        Alternate forms: alfarga, alfarge, alfarky, alforche, alforga, alforge, alforka, alforki, alforje, alforkus.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > alforja(s)

  • 7 aparejo

    (Sp. model spelled same [aparéxo] < Spanish verb aparejar 'to prepare' < Spanish prefix a- plus parejo < Latin pariculum, dimuni-tive of parem 'equal')
       SW: 1844. A type of packsaddle consisting of a large stuffed leather or canvas pad attached to a wide cinch and an exceptionally wide breeching that fits under the animal's tail. It is especially designed for awkward heavy loads and may be used on horses, mules, and other animals. Spanish sources define it both as a packsaddle or riding gear. Bentley notes this item became so common that the U.S. Army has its own official version of the aparejo. Such packsaddles were common on long trail drives.
        Alternate forms: aparayho, arapaho.
       

    Vocabulario Vaquero > aparejo

  • 8 arroyo

    (Sp. model spelled same [arójo] < Latin arrugia 'mining trench or riverbed')
       Northwestern Texas: 1806. A deep-cut channel made by a creek or rivulet. It may be filled with water or be dry. Dry arroyos are referred to as arroyos secos in Arizona. According to Hendrickson, the term may refer to a "brook, creek, channel, gully, dry wash, stream bed, or valley." Bentley notes that the terms cañon and arroyo may substitute for each other, in a non- technical sense. Spanish sources concur with all the meanings listed except 'valley' and 'canyon,' which are clearly extensions of the original meanings. This term, along with others such as canyon and mesa, is used frequently in literature and films depicting the cowboy in the Southwest.
        Alternate forms: aroya, arroya, royo.
        Also called a wash, often pronounced with an intrusive /r/.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > arroyo

  • 9 atajo

    ( hatajo [atáxo] < verb atajar < prefix a- plus verb tajar < Latin taliare 'to cut,' meaning group that has been separated or set apart from a larger group).
       New Mexico: 1844. A string of packmules or pack horses. Bentley indicates "a typical atajo may have consisted of from fifteen to forty animals equipped with aparejos and cared for by drivers or atajaderos." Santamaría concurs. The DRAE and the VCN give "a group of livestock" as an alternate definition. These pack animals were a necessity on the long cattle drives and some borderland cowboys certainly knew the Spanish term.
        Alternate forms: atago, hatajo.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > atajo

  • 10 basto

    (Sp. model spelled same [básto] < Vulgar Latin * bastum 'packsaddle')
       Mexico and California: 1881. According to the DARE, "the skirt of a saddle; also, the leather lining of a saddle." The DRAE notes the American usage of this term and defines it as the cushions that make up the saddle pads. Santamaría mentions that the term is usually plural, bastos, and that it refers to two pieces of leather that rest on the frame of a saddle and protect the backside of the horse. They can be made several ways and are generally lined with coarse woolen cloth or unshorn sheepskin. Cobos defines basto as a "saddle skirt made of sole leather lined with undressed lambskin."
        Alternate forms: bastas, bastos.
       Also sometimes referred to as sudadero.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > basto

  • 11 bayeta

    (Sp. model spelled same [bajéta], probably from Old French baiette, diminutive of bai 'gray; brown')
        DARE: 1852. Watts indicates that bayeta refers to a woolen yarn as well as fabric composed of the same produced by the Pueblo Indians. The DRAE describes bayeta as a loosely woven wool cloth or a sort of flannel used to mop floors and other surfaces. Cobos defines it as "woolen homespun." No doubt a few cowpokes were familiar with this fabric.
        Alternate forms: bay-jeta, vayeta.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > bayeta

  • 12 bosal

    ( bozal [bosál]< bozo < Latin bucceus 'from the mouth,' and -al 'pertaining to')
       New Mexico: 1844. A rope; a leather, or rawhide halter; or a metal ring that fits around the nose of a horse and is used as part of a hackamore in place of a bit. It can also refer to the rope used for such a halter. A bosal is often used when breaking a horse or riding an unruly horse. The DRAE gives several definitions for bozal, but notes that in the Americas it refers to a rope that, when tied to the neck of an animal, functions as a halter. In Spain, the more common term is bozo. Santamaría expands on the definition found in the DRAE and indicates that a bozal is made by loosely looping a rope around an animal's neck and securing it with a knot, then tying the rest of the rope around the horse's nose, using the end as a single rein.
        Alternate forms: bonsal, bosaal, bozal.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > bosal

  • 13 bronco

    (Sp. model spelled same [bróŋko], of uncertain origin; may be from Latin broncus, via broccus 'having long, uneven teeth' as the DRAE concludes; or from an early Spanish term meaning originally 'piece of a cut branch' or 'knot in wood' < Vulgar Latin * bruncus, a cross between broccus 'pointed object' and truncus 'trunk' as Corominas hypothesizes)
       Clark: 1850s. Hendrickson, Clark, and Blevins all reference this term.
       1) Originally applied to a wild or unbroken horse. It could be used as an alternate term for mustang. It was later applied more loosely to any unmanageable or vicious horse. More recently, the term refers to any horse used by a cowboy.
       2) The term could also be an adjective describing an unruly horse or a wild, rebellious person. The DRAE references the adjective bronco, meaning crude, rough, or unrefined, and also mentions a noun form used in Mexico meaning an untamed horse. Santamaría concurs, describing a bronco as a horse that has not yet been broken and therefore fights the reins and rider.
        Alternate forms: bronc, bronch, broncho.
       Cowboys came to prefer the anglicized form bronc.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > bronco

  • 14 buckaroo

    ( vaquero [bakéro] < Spanish vaca 'cow' < Latin vaccam 'cow'and Spanish suffix -ero 'profession or office.' Mason's speculation that a Nigerian form mbakara > bakara 'white man' is the model can easily be dismissed on linguistic grounds. See Cassidy and Hill for further details)
       1) Texas: 1827. A working cowboy; later it came to mean any ranch hand. Watts suggests that the term was popularized in pulp literature because it conjures an image of a man on a bucking horse; indeed, A. A. Hill posits a blend with the term buck( ing) as the source for the first syllable. Watts also notes that the most widely known form, buckaroo, was used in the Northwest. In the Southwest bucka-ree was common. Blevins indicates that the term buckaroo was commonly used in "the desert basins of Northern Nevada, Northern California, Eastern Oregon, and Western Idaho." Hendrickson indicates that this word has become so integrated into the English language that it has been the model for over fifty American slang words. Among those referenced by Hendrickson are stinkaroo (a bad play or movie), the old switcheroo (the act of substituting one thing for another with the intention to deceive, 'bait-and-switch tactics'), antsaroo (refers to someone who is impatient or has 'ants in his pants'), jugaroo (jail), and ziparoo (energy). The original Spanish term is vaquero, a common name for a man who cares for cattle.
        Alternate forms: (some early forms were stressed on the second syllable) baccaro, bacquero, baquero, bucaroo, buccaro, buccaroo, buchario, buckara, buckaree, buckayro, buckeroo, buckhara, bukkarer, jackeroo.
       2) Nevada: 1967. It may also be a verb meaning to work as a cowboy.
        See buckaroo1, vaquero.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > buckaroo

  • 15 buffalo

    ( búfalo (búfalo] < Late Latin bufalus < Latin bübulus 'cattle; beef')
       West: 1848. The North American bison ( Bison americanus). According to Watts, Nuñez Cabeza de Vaca was the first to apply erroneously the Spanish term búfalo to the American bison because it was similar in appearance to the Indian or African wild ox or buffalo. The buffalo played an important role in the exploration and settlement of the Old West. According to Josiah Gregg ( Commerce of the Prairies), it was a primary source of meat for early expeditions. It was also widely hunted by Indians for its meat and hide. As a result of the animal's importance in the Southwest, the term, originally applied by the Spaniards, became highly integrated into English. This is evidenced by its use as a verb (first referenced in English in central Texas in 1896), meaning to frighten or confuse (or, by extension, to strike on the head with the barrel of a gun), as well as by its use in more than thirty compounds that refer to Southwestern plant life (buffalo berry, buffalo clover, buffalo pea) and animal life (buffalo fish, buffalo wolf). Some compounds containing buffalo also pertain to the history of the Southwest: "buffalo cider" or "buffalo gall" was a liquid found in the buffalo's stomach that could save a thirsty explorer, "buffalo fever" was the excitement felt at the onset of a "buffalo hunt," and "buffalo wood," "buffalo fuel" or "buffalo chips" referred to dried buffalo manure, used to start fires. Santamaría and the DRAE both point out the erroneous use of búfalo in North America to refer to the American bison.
        Alternate forms: buff, buffler, bufler.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > buffalo

  • 16 caballo

    (Sp. model spelled same [kaβájo]] < Latin caballum [see above])
       Texas: 1843. General Spanish term for 'horse.' Clark indicates that this term was in common use "in Southwest Texas, Southern Arizona, and Southern California." Adams and Blevins note that it is often used "lightly or mockingly." This is due to a popular belief that things of Mexican or Spanish origin are substandard.
        Alternate forms: cavallo, cavoya.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > caballo

  • 17 cabestro

    (Sp. model spelled same [kabéstro] < Latin capistrum 'halter')
       1) DARE: 1805. Originally a halter or tether made of a hair rope. Watts notes that its original meaning was broadened to refer to any hair rope, or even to a reata, which is generally a rope made of rawhide. This last application is not widespread, however, and can be confusing, since cabestro is often used to distinguish a rope made of hair from one made of rawhide or leather. The DRAE defines cabestro as a halter that is tied to the head or neck of a horse to lead or secure it. Islas's definition differs from the DRAE's in that the horsehair cabestro need not be attached to a halter. According to Islas, it is the term most commonly used in Mexico to refer to a twisted horsehair rope used to restrain, lead, or train a horse. Its length is variable—it may be some sixteen feet long and serve as a halter, or about twenty feet long and function as a double-rein, or from twenty-six to thirty-three feet long and serve as a "false rein" (or halter and headstall used when breaking a horse). The thickness of the cabestro or cabresto also varies, depending on the function of the rope. Santamaría concurs with Islas, noting that cabresto is so common in Mexico that cabestro sounds strange to the ear. He cites Salvá as saying that cabresto is an antiquated form that appears in writing in the sixteenth century. (Linguistically, the fact that the /r/ appears to move from one syllable to the next and forms a consonant cluster with /b/ or /t/ is known as metathesis. Such variation is common in popularly transmitted forms and is evidenced in the history of both Spanish and English.) Cobos indicates that in New Mexico and southern Colorado cabresto can refer to a rope in general.
        Alternate forms: cabarista, cabaros, caberes, caberos, caboras, caboris, cabras, cabrass, cabressa, cabresse, cabresta, cabresto, cabris, cavraces.
       2) According to Smith, cabestro can also refer to "one who might be led around by the nose." Spanish sources do not reference this term as a noun that can be applied to a person. However, the DRAE references cabestrear and Santamaría references cabrestear as verbs meaning to lead an animal around with a cabestro or cabresto. Santamaría indicates that the verb form can be used figuratively to lead a person "by the nose" or to coerce him or her to do something against his or her will. According to the DRAE, llevar/ traer del cabestro a alguien has the same figurative meaning in Spain.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > cabestro

  • 18 cabeza

    (Sp. model spelled same [kaβésa] < Hispanic Vulgar Latin * capi-tia 'head')
       Northern California: 1868. This General Spanish term for 'head' is often used jocularly by cowboys and others. See below for an example.
        Alternate forms: cabase, kerbase.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > cabeza

  • 19 cachimilla

    ( cachanilla [kat∫aníja] < New Mexican Spanish cachana < Mexican Spanish cachane ( Senecio cardiophillus, according to the DM))
        DARE: 1911. A shrub ( Pluchea sericea) with straight, tough stalks. The stalks were used by Indians to make shafts for their arrows. According to the DARE, this plant ranges from western Texas to California and northern Mexico. The term cachanilla is referenced by Cobos as a plant with curative properties. He says the term derives from cachaña, which he defines similarly. Its root is said to counteract the ill effects of curses, hexes and other forms of witchcraft. In English, it is also known as arrow weed, arrow wood.
        Alternate forms: cachanilla, cachinilla.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > cachimilla

  • 20 cacique

    (Sp. model spelled same [kasíke]; from the Taino word for 'chief or petty king')
       A term used in the Southwest to apply to an Indian village chieftain or a local political boss. This term is used outside of the Southwest and originated in the West Indies, where it referred to a native chief or prince. The DRAE notes that the principal meaning of this term is a lord or chief in an Indian community. By extension, it may also be used in Spanish to refer to an influential political boss or to any person who abuses his authority over others. Cobos references it as a "Pueblo Indian chief and ceremonial leader." Santamaría indicates that in Mexico it is used contemptuously to mean a despot or no-account tyrant.
        Alternate forms: casick, casique.

    Vocabulario Vaquero > cacique

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